Recommended Name ?autolysin
Systematic Name ?peptidoglycan amidohydrolase
Alternative Name ?autolysin LytA
acetylmuramoyl-alanine amidase
acetylmuramyl-alanine amidase
acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase
N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase
N-acetylmuramylalanine amidase
N-acylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase
peptidoglycan amidohydrolase
Uniprot IDP06653
General Mode of ActionEnzymatic cleavage of peptidoglycan which results in a rapid lysis of the bacterial cell (destruction of pneumococcal cells strictly depends on the presence of choline).
phiBIOTICS Family ?NAM amidase
Reaction ?1. Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain bacterial cell-wall glycopeptides (R04112)
    Corresponding Pfam domain: Amidase_2
    Evidence: experimental (PubMed: 4149515)
Source Organism ?Streptococcus pneumoniae
Target Organism ?Streptococcus pneumoniae
Disease ?Meningitis
Otitis media
State ?Tested
Reference ?2875013

Studies found: 3

Antimicrobial Agent
Study Type
Relevant ResultsAdverse Effects and Other IssuesReference ?
LytA in vitro
  • pneumococcal penicillin-resistant strain MJD3693
LytA was found to be more active than Cpl-1 against penicillin-resistant strain. 17576844
LytA in vivo
  • murine β-lactam resistant peritonitis-sepsis model


Single dose of LytA administered 1 h after inoculation with lethal pneumococcal suspension significantly decreased bacterial titers (4 to 5 logs) in blood and peritoneal fluid.
Moreover 3 of 5 mice treated with enzyme had no detectable bacteremia. Intravenous administration of enzyme had the greatest bactericidal effect in blood.
LytA + Cefotaxine in vitro
  • set of 4 pneumococcal clinical isolates including:
    PEN-susceptible strains:
    serotype 3 (AR3J118, FL5629)
    PEN-resistant (as well as CTX-resistant) strains:
    serotype 19F (MJD3693)
    serotype 19A (South African strain 8249)
Combination of LytA with CTX resulted in effective synergistic inhibition achieved after 5 h of exposure to agents (2.48 log10 decrease in CFU/mL between the combination and LytA) against one of two CTX-resistant strains (meningeal serotype 19F MJD3693 isolate). 17827138